NGS Picture ID:1005297

Invasion barges float on peaceful Thames near Houses of Parliament. (B. Anthony Stewart)

European cities, led by Frankfurt and London, account for seven of the top 10 most sustainable cities while the other three are the well-heeled Asian tigers of Seoul, Singapore and Hong Kong, according to a new ranking of 50 major metro areas.

The rankings are hardly a surprise to anyone, including me, who’s spent time recently in the fast-growing metropolises of Jakarta, the world’s most congested city, or New Delhi, its smoggiest. I spent hours last week sitting in Jakarta’s traffic and had a difficult time breathing the December air of India’s capital. So the latest rankings, released this week, are perhaps a cautionary tale of what it takes to make a city truly sustainable. (See related story: “Can Houseplants Really Clean the World’s Smoggiest City?“)

The inaugural Sustainable Cities Index, compiled by the London-based Center for Economics and Business Research, bases its ranking on how cities fare in three areas: social (people), environmental (planet) and economic (profit.) It finds that mature cities achieve the best balance but cannot rely on historic investment. It also finds there’s no utopia, suggesting that all cities struggle in some way to meet the needs of their people.

“Our world is changing at a faster pace than ever before,” says John Batten, global cities director of the consultancy firm ARCADIS, which funded the index. “Developing technology, population growth and the emergence of a truly global economy mean that the notion of national borders is becoming less relevant. Instead, we see the concept of the ‘global city’ taking hold.”

The index finds:

  • Europe. Its cities lead on sustainability. Aside from Frankfurt and London, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Berlin and Madrid make the top 10 list. While Frankfurt tops the Profit sub-index, followed by London, Rotterdam does best in the People category because of its high literacy rate and a good work-life balance. Frankfurt and Berlin score highest for Planet factors because of their waste management and low levels of air pollution.
  • North America. Its cities fare best on Profit factors because of their relatively high income per capita and ease of doing business. None make the top 10 overall. Toronto ranks highest overall at 12th place. Boston and Chicago, ranking 15th and 19th respectively, score highest among U.S. cities. In the Profit sub-index, San Francisco is the highest-ranked, scoring 7th, while all U.S. cities appear in the top half. Yet in the Planet category, when carbon dioxide emissions are considered, every North American city sits in the bottom half —alongside cities in the Middle East.

    New apartment buildings rise near trash and construction materials in the northern part of Jakarta on Feb. 2, 2015. (Wendy Koch)

  • Asia. Its cities show the most divergence. While three score in the top 10 overall, four score in the bottom 10: New Delhi, Wuhan, Mumbai, Manila and Jakarta. Because of its strong transportation network, Seoul does particularly well on the People sub-index, reaching second place globally after Melbourne. Hong Kong fares best for university education, life expectancy, and highest percentage of green space. While several Asian cities perform well in the Profit category, notably Singapore and Hong Kong, their long work hours (often 20 percent higher than the global average) and poor work-life balance hold down their People scores.
  • South America. Its cities don’t score well overall, doing especially poorly in the People and Profit categories. All appeared in the bottom 10 for income inequality. Santiago and São Paulo are its highest-ranking cities overall, scoring 30th and 31st respectively. Yet São Paulo scores poorly for greenhouse gas emissions, ahead of only Nairobi and Manila.
  • Middle East. Its cities tend to score much better in the Profit than Planet category. Dubai and Doha, for example, score much lower on environmental factors than economic ones. Middle Eastern cities have seen some of the highest rates of population growth in the past five years as Doha, Dubai and Abu Dhabi experience 30 percent-plus increase that has strained city infrastructure.

Overall the top ten and bottom ten cities:

 Top ten Bottom ten
 1.  Frankfurt 41.  Rio de Janeiro
 2.  London 42.  Doha
 3.  Copenhagen 43.  Moscow
 4.  Amsterdam 44.  Jeddah
 5.  Rotterdam 45.  Riyadh
 6.  Berlin 46.  Jakarta
 7.  Seoul 47.  Mumbai
 8.  Hong Kong 48.  Wuhan
 9.  Madrid 49.  New Delhi
 10.  Singapore 50.  Nairobi

People sub-index

 Top ten – people factors Bottom ten – people factors
 1.  Rotterdam 41.  Johannesburg
 2.  Seoul 42.  Riyadh
 3.  London 43.  Mexico Ciry
 4.  Sydney 44.  Jakarta
 5.  Copenhagen 45.  Wuhan
 6.  Hong Kong 46.  Rio de Janeiro
 7.  Amsterdam 47.  Manila
 8.  Melbourne 48.  Mumbai
 9.  Frankfurt 49.  New Delhi
 10.  Berlin 50.  Nairobi

Planet sub-index

 Top ten – planet factors Bottom ten – planet factors
 1.  Frankfurt 41.  Moscow
 2.  Berlin 42.  Dallas
 3.  Copenhagen 43.  Los Angeles
 4.  Madrid 44.  Abu Dhabi
 5.  Rotterdam 45.  Nairobi
 6.  Amsterdam 46.  Beijing
 7.  Singapore 47.  Dubai
 8.  Rome 48.  Wuhan
 9.  Toronto 49.  New Delhi
 10.  Birmingham 50.  Doha

Profit sub-index

 Top ten – profit factors Bottom ten – profit factors
 1.  Frankfurt 41.  Jeddah
 2.  London 42.  Buenos Aires
 3.  Hong Kong 43.  Jakarta
 4.  Amsterdam 44.  Riyadh
 5.  Melbourne 45.  Moscow
 6.  San Francisco 46.  Rio de Janeiro
 7.  Seoul 47.  Mumbai
 8.  Singapore 48.  New Delhi
 9.  Brussels 49.  Nairobi
 10.  Madrid 50.  Wuhan

Overall ARCADIS Sustainable Cities Index ranking

  1. Frankfurt
  2. London
  3. Copenhagen
  4. Amsterdam
  5. Rotterdam
  6. Berlin
  7. Seoul
  8. Hong Kong
  9. Madrid
  10. Singapore
  11. Sydney
  12. Toronto
  13. Brussels
  14. Manchester
  15. Boston
  16. Paris
  17. Melbourne
  18. Birmingham
  19. Chicago
  20. New York
  21. Houston
  22. Philadelphia
  23. Tokyo
  24. Rome
  25. Washington
  26. Kuala Lumpur
  27. San Francisco
  28. Los Angeles
  29. Dallas
  30. Santiago
  31. Sao Paulo
  32. Mexico City
  33. Dubai
  34. Abu Dhabi
  35. Shanghai
  36. Istanbul
  37. Johannesburg
  38. Buenos Aires
  39. Beijing
  40. Rio de Janeiro
  41. Doha
  42. Moscow
  43. Jeddah
  44. Riyadh
  45. Jakarta
  46. Manila
  47. Mumbai
  48. Wuhan
  49. New Delhi


  1. Not Telling :P
    Singapore (pls dont stalk me)
    February 16, 2016, 10:48 pm

    Very proud to see Singapore at no. 10.

  2. Lavinia
    November 13, 2015, 12:41 pm

    I hope the only way Rome made it in the top 10 Planet sub-index is because it’s not even as remotely as big as cities like London. Although its position still makes me question the reliability of these lists… Public transport sucks, traffic is a serious issue because at least 80% of Rome’s population has a car/scooter (and uses it every day) and the streets can be quite dirty. I really don’t understand.

  3. Frederick Bethel Saduwa
    March 1, 2015, 1:09 am

    I am quite amazed that the African continent was not covered,unless a city in South Africa. We will not care if our cities appear at the bottom.that will trigger,the rescue of our cities.

  4. Markus
    United States
    February 15, 2015, 5:56 pm

    I’m European and used to be flattered by these rankings, but I think they’re actually a bit misleading at least in the environmental domain. I think most cities in wealthy countries contribute more to climate change and biodiversity loss than those in China or India. Here’s why:

    While it’s true that some European cities are doing a better job than other cities in transportation planning and recycling, the average European or American still consumes much larger quantities of all kinds of products.

    If we eat burgers at McDonald’s in Frankfurt and switch to a new cell phone every three years, we induce deforestation in Brazil and water pollution from mining rare earths in China. Neither of them shows up in the sustainability record of Frankfurt.

    A city can’t be truly sustainable if its inhabitants don’t have sustainable lifestyles.